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The idea of constructed wet roofs CWR is to connect (extensive) green roofs and constructed wetlands for domestic wastew...
- measure to initiate channel dynamics - enlarging the flood plain, shifting substrate within the river and bottom out b...
Planted walls with controlled cultivation are called green facades. Facade greenings are divided in two types. The facad...
Mounds are a very old strategy to make use of natural processes for proving flood protection. They enable settlement and...
Extensive green roofs* are basic, light weight systems, characterized by minimum maintenance and management (artificial...
- expansion of the flood plain area - providing additional flood space by excavating the lateral river bed (flood plain...
Residential Parks are part of the Green Infrastructure (GI) of cities and serve the residential areas as the nearest mai...
- protection against erosion - combination of mats/covering with vegetation layer e.g. seeding and plants - use of local...
For hundreds of years, the Khasi people of the Meghalayan mountains in north-eastern India have built bridges created wi...
Constructed wetlands represent artificial wetlands with the main objective to harvest, treat and store storm-/grey water...
Boulevards represent a possibility to establish several trees in cities amongst others to mitigate urban heat stress. Wi...
- natural and careful measure - application for water bank protection and (strongly inclined) hillside stabilization - c...
Verticalization of green spaces is an adequate way to increase vegetated surfaces with many ecological services in urban...
A bioswale* is a vegetated, linear and low sloped pit often established in urban areas near/between roads with the objec...
- disruptive and diverting element are placed in a riverbed with the main objective to redirect, disturb, divert and def...
Planted walls with controlled cultivation are called green facades. Ground-based green facades are made of climbing plan...
Smart roofs are a special type of extensive green roofs that fulfil different services to protect ecosystems in cities:...
- measures lead to flow variation and sediment shifting processes  structural remodelling - change of appearance  chan...
Areas of derelict infrastructure, e.g. railway lines, that are transformed into linear parks play an important role in u...
Biofilters (air) are facilities to control and purify biological waste gas. They are developed to reduce and eliminate b...
Intensive green roofs* are often associated with residential buildings, hotels or underground parkings. The more complex...
- opening of covered/buried watercourses (rivers, drainage systems) by removing concrete layers - reason for culverting...
Group of trees mimicking the gestalt of a forest in an urban setting. They may be an option for the design of shaded squ...
- covering construction consisting of willow (able to root) and brushwood (not able to root) - installation and fixation...
Noise barrier as free standing living walls are constructions of baskets or different elements covered/filled with soil...
A rain garden* is a kind of garden that primarily serves as area for water control (storage and infiltration) on a small...
Single line trees represent one possibility to establish several trees in urban areas. As the name implies, single line...
- varying the bank reinforcement - plants/trees are planted along the riverside to stabilize the riverbank and thus avoi...
Green noise barriers are effective measures to reduce noise emissions along highly frequented roads. They are often desi...

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 730052 Topic: SCC-2-2016-2017: Smart Cities and Communities Nature based solutions