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A bioswale* is a vegetated, linear and low sloped pit often established in urban areas near/between roads with the objec...
Planted walls with controlled cultivation are called green facades. Facade greenings are divided in two types. The facad...
Underground systems below public open spaces (sport fields) composed of modular elements to retain flash floods and to s...
Intensive green roofs* are often associated with residential buildings, hotels or underground parkings. The more complex...
Residential Parks are part of the Green Infrastructure (GI) of cities and serve the residential areas as the nearest mai...
- Porous asphalt is permeable to water - Porous asphalt is similar to permeable/pervious concrete (function) - Composed...
Mosses have compared to other plants a large bio-active surface, they transpire more and also actively reduce some pollu...
Biofilters (air) are facilities to control and purify biological waste gas. They are developed to reduce and eliminate b...
Boulevards represent a possibility to establish several trees in cities amongst others to mitigate urban heat stress. Wi...
- Vegetated grid pavers consist of concrete bricks with gaps/funnels between the single bricks - Use of concrete bricks...
Verticalization of green spaces is an adequate way to increase vegetated surfaces with many ecological services in urban...
- Opening of covered/buried watercourses (rivers, drainage systems) by removing concrete layers. - Reason for culverting...
A rain garden* is a kind of garden that primarily serves as area for water control (storage and infiltration) on a small...
Planted walls with controlled cultivation are called green facades. Ground-based green facades are made of climbing plan...
Constructed wetlands represent artificial wetlands with the main objective to harvest, treat and store storm-/grey water...
Extensive green roofs* are basic, light weight systems, characterized by minimum maintenance and management (artificial...
Areas of derelict infrastructure, e.g. railway lines, that are transformed into linear parks play an important role in u...
- High permeable material/special material that allows water to pass through into the soil - underground gravel bed (add...
For hundreds of years, the Khasi people of the Meghalayan mountains in north-eastern India have built bridges created wi...
Group of trees mimicking the gestalt of a forest in an urban setting. They may be an option for the design of shaded squ...
- Permeable concrete is permeable to water (also described as heavy permeable surface) - Special material/cement mixture...
Noise barrier as free standing living walls are constructions of baskets or different elements covered/filled with soil...
- varying the bank reinforcement - plants/trees are planted along the riverside to stabilize the riverbank and thus avoi...
Single line trees represent one possibility to establish several trees in urban areas. As the name implies, single line...
Permeable paving systems are known as surfaces that are able to absorb storm water and thus, minimize the surface water...
Green noise barriers are effective measures to reduce noise emissions along highly frequented roads. They are often desi...
Biofilters (water) are developed to collect and purify storm- and wastewater and represent a promising system for storm...

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 730052 Topic: SCC-2-2016-2017: Smart Cities and Communities Nature based solutions