Planted walls with controlled cultivation are called green facades. Facade greenings are divided in two types. The facade-bound greening which is a part of the facade or uses the facade for fixing panels and containers to it. The second type is the ground based facade greening (3.2.). Facade-bound greening is in most cases very intensively using technology for irrigation, and special substrates for reducing the weight of the green facade. Precultivated panels or special plant pot systems are most often used. For light weight structures special tissues are used. Because of the thinness of the soil/substrate layer temperatures below 0° C may be a problem. Some greening systems allow to remove the panels during winter

Basic information

Retrofitting + Creation


Evapotranspiration 2 2
Shading none none
Reflection (Albedo) none
Water Conveyance none
Water Infiltration none
Water Retention none
Water Storage none
Water Reuse none
Water Filtering none
Water Bio-remediation none
Deposition 1
Bio-filtration none
Habitat Provision 1
Connectivity 1
Beauty / Appearance 2
Usability / Functionality none
Social Interaction none
Role of Nature / Mode of Action: 
Facade-bound greening have similar services like a very thin natural soil which deals as a basis for vegetation. Depending on the level of engineering for irrigation, for nutrition supply and for the substrate the vegetation cover can perform highly.
Technical & Design Parameters: 
Options highly depend on the character of the building (new construction, refurbishment, restoration) and secondly on structural engineering. For new constructions integrated facade systems can be used with vegetation panels (0.5 m² - 1 m²). For regeneration projects a separate scaffolding is often needed. - Panel: 0.5 – 1.0 m² - Variety of 10-15 species of plants is most often used - Irrigation and special substrate is necessary - Small plants (type depends on environmental factors)
Conditions for Implementation: 
- Mosses, perennial plants are appropriate - Not very dry/hot/cold area - All surfaces are potentially useable, but sun exposed facades perform best potentially due to greatest light exposure (depends on the plants which are used) - Risk of fire if substrate and / or vegetation dries out - Temperature resistant material - Special care of professional gardeners is needed for maintenance
Benefits & Limitations: 
Benefits: Air pollution is reduced by plants, they bind high proportions of the particulate matter and polluting gases and green facades additional produce fresh air - A greened facade reduces the temperature about 2-10 K (compared to natural stone) - Green facades have good evaporation services - Evapotranspiration: 5-20 % sunlight is used for photosynthesis, 20-40% is used for evapotranspiration 10-50 % transformed into heat 5-30% reflection - Water retention: 15-30% - Biodiversity/Habitat provision: birds, bats (nesting and breeding) - Natural noise protection - Improved aesthetics Potential limitations/disservices: - High dependency on irrigation system, - Frost risk

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 730052 Topic: SCC-2-2016-2017: Smart Cities and Communities Nature based solutions