Group of trees mimicking the gestalt of a forest in an urban setting. They may be an option for the design of shaded squares and places or as a contrasting element in densely built up areas or for court yard design.

Basic information

Retrofitting + Creation


Evapotranspiration 2 2
Shading 2 none
Reflection (Albedo) none
Water Conveyance none
Water Infiltration 1
Water Retention 2
Water Storage none
Water Reuse none
Water Filtering none
Water Bio-remediation none
Deposition 1
Bio-filtration 1
Habitat Provision 2
Connectivity 2
Beauty / Appearance 2
Usability / Functionality 1
Social Interaction 1
Role of Nature / Mode of Action: 
The group of trees create a shaded environment in summer which is similar to a small patch of forest or the fringe area of larger forests.
Technical & Design Parameters: 
In order to create a sufficient microclimate right from the start, mature trees from nurseries are needed. Trees are planted in a rather dense grid and need to be irrigated during the first years and possibly throughout the whole life time. Water for irrigation comes ideally from surfaces and roofs.
Conditions for Implementation: 
Species and sub species that are suitable for urban conditions should be planted. The use of different species (Arboretum) may enhance the chances for establishing more robust living conditions. The group of trees may be planted on natural soils or on top of underground buildings if the soil depth is sufficient.
Benefits & Limitations: 
Benefits: Biodiversity/Habitat provision (depending on species selection) - Improved aesthetics - Meeting places - Public spaces for heat reduction Potential limitations/disservices: Disservices of trees may be the allergenic potential of its pollen and BVOC emissions.

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 730052 Topic: SCC-2-2016-2017: Smart Cities and Communities Nature based solutions